Neuroscience: Memory tied to a specific protein complex

At times it must seem to neuroscientists that the enigma of memory reveals its secrets to them as if they were the proverbial blind men describing an elephant. “Ah yes, it has a hose, a very thick hose, so thick it’s almost like a tree trunk!” If only it were as easy to get the feel of neurons as it is for an elephant.

Philosophers and scientists have been pondering, poking and experimenting around the concept and physical reality of memory for centuries. Saying, “We’re a lot closer now,” is probably true, but like determining the properties of an elephant, what we know is probably bits and pieces. That said, as new pieces are added, something that resembles a working hypothetical framework is emerging, and science thrives on frameworks that answer questions and lead to testable results.

A new piece, and potentially a very important new piece, has been added by John Lisman and Zalman Kekst at the Lisman Laboratory at Brandeis University (Boston, Massachusetts, USA) and published in the Journal of Neuroscience [22 June 2011, paywalled, Role of the CaMKII/NMDA Receptor Complex in the Maintenance of Synaptic Strength]. In short, memory appears to be related to proteins that exist in the unique space between neurons called the synapse.

The finding, which I’ll describe in more detail in a moment, is not in itself surprising. Neuroscientists have suspected for some time that proteins are involved in the memory process. It figures, because proteins are the ‘building blocks of biology.’ They are the most flexible, adaptable, and varied of all the biochemical materials. Why wouldn’t memory, which probably requires trillions of coding possibilities, make use of proteins? Well, it hasn’t always been seen that way. Among the many models of how memory works, it was held for some time that neurons themselves, brain cells, were created, shaped and connected to create memory. That model is in the process of being superseded by findings that indicate memory is more likely created in the synapses between neurons.

I won’t get deeply into neuroscience 101, but perhaps you’re familiar with the image of a neuron with a long ‘tail,’ an axon lead out from it and coming up next to – but not touching – another axon from another neuron. The tiny space between axons is the synapse, where the most complicated of all electrobiochemistry takes place, and where a bioelectrical impulse (action potential) ‘jumps,’ is transmitted, between axons. Only the jumping isn’t always the point. Neuroscientific research is reaching consensus that the ‘strength’ of the synapse (to oversimplify, its electrical charge) in some brain neurons is an element of memory encoding. Increase the strength and a bit of information is stored. Decrease the strength below a certain point, and that information is erased.

I’m using some terminology used around computer memory because it’s familiar. Care should be taken not to assume that what happens in the synapses is like computer memory. At this point, it’s only an analogy.

This model or hypothesis about memory has been the focus of research for about two decades, and as I mentioned it has been suspected that proteins are involved. Now, according to the new findings, a specific protein complex has been identified. It has an unmemorable (!) name: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II or CaMKII, combined with a NMDAR glutamate receptor to make the CaMKII/NMDAR complex, which doesn’t help much. This complex determines how strong a synapse is, which translates into how well memory is stored.

A long chain of research, which revealed the presence of this complex in the material of the synapse, led to specific experiments based on simple logic: More of the complex in the synapse would indicate a strong memory; less of the complex (or none) would indicate a weak or non-existent memory. It’s kind of the put-in-take-out sort of experiment that can lead to solid results – which in this case is what happened. Using neuron segments from the hippocampus of rats, an area long associated with memory formation, the scientists used a chemical to dissolve the complex, which should lead to a loss of memory. It did. Learning, the reverse process, has been shown to increase the quantity of the complex.

So, according to this research, at least one protein complex has been associated with memory formation and loss. No one is claiming this is the end of the story. Obviously, there are other proteins or other chemicals involved, some of which may not be fully discovered. Perhaps there are aspects to the proteins, such as the configuration (folding) that play a role. The precise mechanism of protein formation in this complex is not fully understood. Of course, the 64 trillion connection question, is what, if any, is the code used for memory? The upshot is that neuroscientists don’t know yet how memory works, BUT isolating at least one of the crucial protein complexes involved is a big step in the (hopefully) right direction.

The impact of this finding is not that the elephant in the room has been fully revealed, but that the blind men attempting to figure out what it is have another piece of fact to help shape the next round of exploration. If you’ve ever seen a room full of excited blind men dancing around an elephant…neither have I, but I presume that neuroscientists celebrate their own prospects.

Research Spectrum

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  1. Posted November 15, 2011 at 7:52 pm | Permalink

    Rydberg neuron activation may be more on brain lines with small separation in upper spatulate palm prints.This requires a genetic analysis.Einstein’s palm print had
    extraordinary.This means electron spin may be able to produce fast microchips out of spin clusters for new Rydberg bonding equivalent to one of Pauli exclusion principle analogous to valance bonding electrons which may give a clue on Rydberg genes responsible for cancerous growth spatula formation.
    The existence of the Rydberg series was first demonstrated in 1885 when Johann Balmer discovered a simple empirical formula for the wavelengths of light associated with transitions in atomic hydrogen. Three years later the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg presented a generalized and more intuitive version of Balmer’s formula that came to be known as the Rydberg formula. This formula indicated the existence of an infinite series of ever more closely spaced discrete energy levels converging on a finite limit.[5]
    This series was qualitatively explained in 1913 by Niels Bohr with his semiclassical model of the hydrogen atom in which quantized values of angular momentum lead to the observed discrete energy levels. A full quantitative derivation of the observed spectrum was derived by Wolfgang Pauli in 1926 following development of quantum mechanics by Werner Heisenberg and others.

    Neurons radically by gradient velocity field by analogy may act as Penury’s transformation optics to deal with surface ejection out of opposing and parallel and anti parallel direction field inclined to produce more phase velocity to initiate more matter waves. Out of repulsive attractive refractive index variation for a selective frequency is also operative. A combination transformational optics is producing complex folding that produces matter waves also. The refraction theory is to be updated based on Hall’s inclined effect quantizing transformation optics in oblique neutron phase plane .
    Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar,Oxford astro geneticist and palmist.

  2. Posted December 12, 2013 at 4:23 am | Permalink

    Rydberg neuron activation may be more on brain lines with small separation in upper spatulate palm prints.This requires a genetic analysis.Einstein’s palm print had
    extraordinary.This means electron spin may be able to produce fast microchips out of spin clusters for new Rydberg bonding equivalent to one of Pauli exclusion principle analogous to valance bonding electrons which may give a clue on Rydberg genes responsible for cancerous growth spatula formation.
    The existence of the Rydberg series was first demonstrated in 1885 when Johann Balmer discovered a simple empirical formula for the wavelengths of light associated with transitions in atomic hydrogen. Three years later the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg presented a generalized and more intuitive version of Balmer’s formula that came to be known as the Rydberg formula. This formula indicated the existence of an infinite series of ever more closely spaced discrete energy levels converging on a finite limit.[5]
    This series was qualitatively explained in 1913 by Niels Bohr with his semiclassical model of the hydrogen atom in which quantized values of angular momentum lead to the observed discrete energy levels. A full quantitative derivation of the observed spectrum was derived by Wolfgang Pauli in 1926 following development of quantum mechanics by Werner Heisenberg and others.
    Neurons radically by gradient velocity field by analogy may act as Penury’s transformation optics to deal with surface ejection out of opposing and parallel and anti parallel direction field inclined to produce more phase velocity to initiate more matter waves. Out of repulsive attractive refractive index variation for a selective frequency is also operative. A combination transformational optics is producing complex folding that produces matter waves also. The refraction theory is to be updated based on Hall’s inclined effect quantizing transformation optics in oblique neutron phase plane .
    Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar,Oxford astro geneticist and palmist.
    Palm print of John A logan
    Cheiro met Major John A.Logan during Boer war and predicted a fatalistic accident and informed him to make everything in order before his dealth at the age of 36.John challenged his prediction. But alas Boer war broke out and he has to go in the first regiment and died of a bullet injury.
    This information was already available in his palm print See the fate line breaking the headline into to two with an islanded formation
    Astrogenetic indication can not be ignored and the biometric hologram study is very very important
    Astro geneticist S.Nandakumar research scholar Oxford –Cambridge –Anna University-Hubble-Institute of Advanced computer studies ,University of Maryland ,college park in space science for Study on helium laser biostimulation using crystals in understanding cross and square resonating genes.
    Refer:Computerised Backtracking algoritm to investigate cross and square genetic resonance [Incident: 090603-000051 news@nature.com"
    Histroy: For the first time, researchers have combined gene therapy and cellular reprogramming technologies in human cells to correct a genetic defect. After taking skin and hair cells from patients with a rare genetic disorder and fixing the aberrant mutation, the investigators successfully reprogrammed the cells to an embryonic-like state and then turned them into the very cell types that usually go awry, according to a study published online today (May 31) in Nature
    Ultrafast memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome with reference to brain line having a branch to Jupiter mount:
    The efficiency of DNA sequences can be improved using mercury and Jupiter waves by helium-neon laser biostimulation of crystals giving fast and efficient resonant outputs by Bowtie an efficient algorithm input which could be compared on genome resonating planes with a memory footprint by aligning short DNA sequences based on palm print analysis. The computerized exacting machines may not allow any errors as the quality aware back tracking algorithms does not allow the genetic variations and favors high quality alignments
    The magnetic field in the outer solar atmosphere is frequently distorted by flares. In some cases, a fraction of the field exhibits a rapidly damped oscillation (Schrijver et al.; Aschwanden et al.). If this is a resonating wave trapped in the field, then the rapid damping requires a viscosity or resistivity that is at least 108 times larger than expected (Nakariakov et al.). We propose instead that some of the field lines are so sensitive to the source positions that rocking motions of the photospheric plasma associated with some solar flares (Kosovichev & Zharkova) cause a few loops to oscillate in (anti)phase in the fundamental mode, with a period and decay rate that are determined largely by the characteristics of the photosphere, saying little about the high atmosphere.
    It requires further investigation four quadrant cosmic consciousness in terms of Lagrange dampness-jw frequency root locus magneto optic lattice scattering and respective emissions. Further research by oxford astro genetics dept,uk now at Cape Institute of technology on solar magnetic field resonance:
    Lady Duff-Gordon (Lucy Christiana Sutherl )on catastrophe escape with square at the end of her travel line while W.T.Stead with across drowned into sea.
    One of the mystic solar magnetic field resonating oscillation known as cross genetic oscillation by the over lapping squre oscillation of genetic protection oscillation was evalauted by the Oxford-cambridge team under the team of Hon.Roger davies,Hon.Marteen Reeves along with Oxford astro geneticist S.Nandakumar was solved under Anna –Oxford-cambridge hubble collaboration.In such study people involved in Titanic drowning were analysed on passenger critically born between June-July with cross and square at the end of travel line as per their palm prints.
    Basically this research invloved revealing a typical four quadrant oscillation between frequency swing on jw –y axis and dampness along x axis and the system is typically differentiated as a T type ,L type ,H type and 69 polarisation in cancer contributing a genetic inheritance in genes which requires future investigation.An intersting Solar magnetic emissions on cusp over lapping oscillation a shift from cross oscillation towards square oscillation .A comparison of palm print of W.T.Stead and Lady DuffGordon alias Luciana christina sutherland revealed a surprising conclusion on water catastrophe theory perhaps may bringout Nobel prize in understanding genetic affinity in deciding the the fate of human embyo may pave the way for a novel by Robincook we say.
    The resonating solar magnetic field between June-July could be tracked back to the short DNA sequences in understanding cross towards square resonance in understanding the Titanic tragedy of water affine genes in case of W.T.Stead who had across at the end of travel line where as Lady Doff Gordon escaped out of square resonating resonance in understanding water catastrophe.
    The dampness-jw root locus diagram shifted with reference to cross to square resonance that could be achieved using certain crystal lattices of moonstone-amethyst-emerald the output could be studied wit reference to backtracking algorithms.
    Kind attention Ben Langmead,Cole trapnel,,Mihaypop,Stevens.L.Salzberg
    S.Nandakumar ,on behalf of Oxfor Astro genetics –laser biostimulation study –oxford –Cambridge coordination
    Your call CNSHD751236 regarding Computerised Backtracking algoritm to investigate cross and square genetic resonance has been received. Outreach@stsci.edu"
    Meta physical powers of humanbings in betterment of human resources as cosmic consciousness in understanding mimicry acoustic coded helium laser biostimulation in computerised crystal lasing in controlling T cells-reg [Incident: 090531-000028]
    Lagrange oscillation and production of acoustic waves act as expander and eraser in genetic resonance planes.Now our idea must be to design and develop computerised helium laser biostimulation using crystals in understanding cross and square resonances at critical change over cusps.The quantum valley mutioptic scattering and reflective resonance contributed by the solar magnetic field forms over the changing barrier in every twelve magnetic quantum sectors of space forming 24 variations.
    In quantum mechanics the proposal is that the probability potential of an entity is the driver of the spontaneous actions of that entity, for example to shed a photon or an alpha particle. As strange as it may seem – and I hope you can follow my reasoning here – the assumption of truly spontaneous acts is the reason for the problems with causality in physics. I even propose it is the reason for possibly all paradoxes such as the wave/particle duality, entranglement and photon tunneling.
    The balance of opportunity potential and receptive environment is a resonance and works an all levels. What science calls either a light wave, a photon particle or a probabilistic quantum wave packet is an opportunity potential in the complex wave that represents what we call an atom. The electron wave of that atom cannot have a causal reason or simply spontaneously shed that photon potential into empty space where it will be suspended in nothing or ripple through quantum field oscillators until it falls off the edge of the universe, or magically returns into it as it folds back onto itself or creates new quantum oscillators.
    The power of meta physical energy has viped out certain stomach problems
    even with some acoustic powers .Some relatives already dead had cured
    diseases through their cosmic conscious powers in dreams(refer book by
    Great saint Maraimlai Adigal,Tamilnadu,Rishi Viyasar ).This means an
    organism with cosmic cosciousness can interefere in genetic stem cell
    activities that is why people go to Shri Sathyasaibha of Puttabarthi
    ,Andhrapradesh in India. Similar was the case with Jesus christ.
    The magnetic moment solution to the solar neutrino problem is investigated in the context of a solar magnetic field with varying phase velocity on the transverse plane. This phase velocity is assumed to successively take values which are approximately proportional to the solar density, giving rise to the appearance of many resonances along the neutrino trajectory. We obtain a magnetic moment necessary for a neutrino reduction compatible with the experimental situation in the range (6–7)×10?13?B, an improvement by a factor of 4–6 relative to the one resonance case under the same field conditions.
    Human beings can store the cosmic consciousness and interfere with genetic
    plane and can act as eraser in T cell related problems.Transfering of your expertisation say musical, scientific talents was also possible in such computerized eraser and cosmic conscious injection which will be realized soon, through helium laser biostimulation and advanced line of thought.
    Acoustic coded laser biostimulation may be possible in future thanks to previous research works carried out by Nobel Laureate Hon.Tonegava of MIT and others followed theories postulated by Oxford astro genetic team of members feel that there must be a possibility of understanding the acoustic oscillations that change the dampness-frequency jw axis root locus shifts responsible for the modular changes involved in the system dynamics and definitely helium laser biostimulation may solve our understanding of Lagrange acoustic powers involved in quantum mechanics.
    S.Nandakumar,Astrogeneticist,oxford helium laser biostimulation dept,uk
    June 5, 2009 at 1:39 am
    (10) S.Nandakumar says:
    Oxford Astro geneticist supporting Einstein geometry out of super string quantum dots:
    Oxford –Anna University-Hubble group astro geneticist S.Nandakumar on quantum dots super string theory of solar magnetic field in a different angle
    Sub:Einstein geometry of quantum dots confirming super string wave theory even in palm print:
    Solar magnetic field of the sun by resonating between cross and square quantum dots basically configured as triangle ,square ,circular ,ellipsoidal ,parabolic ,penta,hexagonal critically enhancing similar Einstein geometry with reference to palm print analysis of W.T.Stead who had a cross at the end of travel line where as Lady Doff Gordon who escaped from the water catastrophe during Titanic sinking ,promising the basics of super string theory out of quantum dots in understanding the water affined genes reflecting water catastrophe.
    Solar magnetic field of the sun during June-July due to sudden shift dynamics to 69 polarisation in cancer contributing an interesting??from cusp oscillation that reflects on the human beings along the plane of hologram as observed typically on the palm print on the travel line of T cell ejections of vital line or life line. This further support helium-neon laser biostimulation on stem cells by crystal lasing in understanding cross and square resonating genetic oscillations of T cells, following the research works of Nobel Laureate Tonegava of MIT,usa.
    This ream members with great pleasure further support the basic research on helium-neon lasing using crystals in understanding cross and square genetic oscillation in such nobel prize fetching experiments in Nature.
    This may also give a clue on optic lattice valley for multi reflections to produce quantum dots of convergence and relative emissions in nano technology applications, with reference to electron tunneling.
    It is really a surprising note that the solar magnetic field as the sun enters cancer act as a crab advance and retreat reminding the genetic repetitive crab oscillations involved.
    References:Your call CNSHD749615 regarding Astro combing decides the planets responsible for genetic resonance findings -reg has been received. InboxT cell failure detection by vital line study by palm print is is essential -reg [Incident: 090519-000093]
    Your call CNSHD749615 regarding Astro combing decides the planets responsible for genetic resonance findings -reg has been received. Inbox
    Astro combing decides the planets responsible for genetic resonance findings -reg [Incident: 090511-000023
    Astro combing resonating genetic oscillation by planetary boundaries-reg [Incident: 090511-000031
    Your call CNSHD749884 regarding Lagrange cross resonating oscillation on solar magnetic field reflects on violent astro combing genes-reg has been receive
    Lagrange cross resonating oscillation on solar magnetic field reflects on violent astro combing genes-reg [Incident: 090515-000026] Inbox Your call CNSHD751392 regarding super string wave theory is futher confirmed in different line based on Einstein geometry involving quantum dots-reg has been received. Inbox Outreach@stsci.edu

    Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar.,Hubble Astrogenetic research scholar
    michael.biercuk@ sydney.edu

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